Working Principle of a Centrifugal Pump with Diagram in Hindi and English

In a variety of sectors, including chemical factories and water delivery system, centrifugal pumps are essential. Engineers, technicians, and anybody interested in fluid dynamics must comprehend the operation of a centrifugal pump. We shall examine the inner workings of a centrifugal pump in this article, outlining how it functions and the essential parts involved.

What is an Centrifugal Pump?

By transforming यांत्रिक ऊर्जा को द्रव गतिज ऊर्जा में, centrifugal pumps are mechanical devices used to move fluids. Liquids are moved via a revolving impeller using the centrifugal force theory.

Working Principle of a Centrifugal Pump

The working principle of a centrifugal pump can be explained in the following steps:

Fluid Intake

The centrifugal pump begins its operation by drawing fluid into the pump casing through the inlet. The fluid can be water, oil, or any other suitable liquids.

Impeller Rotation

Once inside the pump casing, the impeller starts rotating at high speed. The rotation generates centrifugal force, causing the fluid to move towards the outer edges of the impeller.

Fluid Acceleration

The spinning fluid is accelerated as it flows from the impeller’s centre to its perimeter because of the curved curvature of the impeller blade. This acceleration creates a low-pressure zone at the impeller’s inlet, facilitating continuous fluid intake.

Fluid Discharge

As the fluid reaches the impeller’s periphery, it is forcefully discharged into the pump casing at a higher pressure. From there, the fluid is directed towards the outlet of the centrifugal pump.

Energy Conversion

The fluid leaving the impeller possesses increased kinetic energy due to the impeller’s rotational movement. This kinetic energy is converted into useful pressure energy as the fluid moves through the pump casing.

Factors Affecting Centrifugal Pump Performance

Several factors influence the performance of a centrifugal pump, including:

Fluid Viscosity

The viscosity of the fluid being pumped affects the pump’s efficiency. High-viscosity fluids require more power to pump compared to low-viscosity ones.

Pump Speed

The impeller’s rotational speed directly affects the pump’s flow rate and pressure output. Adjusting the impeller speed can optimize the pump’s performance for specific applications.

Impeller Design

The impeller’s design, including the number of blades and their shape, impacts the pump’s efficiency. Careful consideration of the impeller design is essential for achieving optimal pump performance.

System Resistance

The amount of resistance encountered by the fluid as it flows through pipes and other components affects the pump’s ability to move the fluid effectively. Higher resistance requires a more powerful pump.


Centrifugal pumps are essential devices in various industries, offering efficient fluid transportation. By harnessing the power of centrifugal force, these pumps enable the movement of liquids with ease. Understanding the working principle of a centrifugal pump, along with its key components and influencing factors, provides valuable insights into their operation and performance.

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