Working Principle of DC Motor in English and Hindi

A device that transform electrical energy into mechanic energy is a DC ( एकदिश धारा) motor. It works on the basic of the electromagnetic induction principles, according to which a magnetic field is produced whenever an electric current flows through a conductor. This article examines the operation and uses of a DC motor while also examining its basic design.

Components of a DC Motor

  • Armature (आर्मेचर)
  • Field System ( फ़ील्ड सिस्टम)
  • Commutator( कम्यूटेटर)
  • Brushes ( ब्रश)

Basic Working Principle of Dc Motor

A DC motor operates on the interaction between magnetic fields and electric currents. When electric current flows through the armature winding, it produces a magnetic field. This magnetic field interacts with the field produced by the field system, resulting in rotational motion.

Operation of a DC Motor

The working of a DC motor can be understood through the following steps:

  • Step 1: The electric current is supplied to the armature winding, creating a magnetic field.
  • Step 2: The electromagnetic force is produced as a result of interactions between the magnetic field and the magnetic field produced by the field system.
  • Step 3: The commutator segment makes the current change direction, causing the armature to rotate.
  • Step 4: As the armature rotates, the brushes change contact from one commutator segment to another, ensuring a continuous flow of current and sustained rotation.

Types of DC Motors

There are different types of DC motors, including:

  • Series Motor: In this motor type, the armature and field winding are connected in series.
  • Shunt Motor: Here, the field winding and armature are linked in parallel.
  • Compound Motor: The characteristics of both series and shunt motors are combined in this motor.

Applications of DC Motors

DC motors find applications in various industries and fields, such as:

  • Automotive: Electric windows, windshield wipers, and power seats.
  • Industrial: Conveyor belts, cranes, and lifts.
  • Home Appliances: Fans, mixers, and washing machines.
  • Robotics: Robotic arms and locomotion systems.
  • Renewable Energy: Wind turbines and solar tracking systems.

Advantages of DC Motors

  • Control: DC motors offer easy speed and torque control.
  • Efficiency: They exhibit high efficiency, especially at low speeds.
  • Compact Size: DC motors are relatively compact and lightweight.
  • Quick Start and Stop: DC motors respond quickly to start and stop commands.
  • Durability: DC motors may last a very long time with the right maintenance.

Disadvantages of DC Motors

  • Maintenance: Brushes and commutators require regular maintenance and replacement.
  • Electromagnetic Interference: DC motors can generate electrical noise that can interfere with sensitive equipment.
  • Limited Speed: DC motors have a limited range of speed compared to other motor types.
  • Cost: In certain cases, DC motors can be more expensive than their AC counterparts.


In conclusion, the working principle of a DC motor relies on the interaction between magnetic fields and electric currents. By converting electrical energy into mechanical energy, DC motors find applications in a wide range of industries. They offer advantages such as control, efficiency, and compact size. However, their maintenance requirements and limited speed range should be considered.

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